| Publications

2016 Combining user needs and stakeholder requirements: the Value Design Method. Gultekin, P. Bekker, M.M., Lu, Y., Brombacher, A. & Eggen, J.H. Collaboration in Creative Design: Methods and Tools. P.Markopoulos, J.B.Martens, J.Malins, K.Coninx., A.Liapis. (eds.) , Berlin: Springer, Vol.2, p. 97-119. 

Abstract. In the emerging design landscape, knowledge integration and collaboration with external partners are being valued in the design process due to the increasing scale and complexity of the design problems.  It becomes important for designers to be in close contact with stakeholders, such as the people, communities and organizations who are affecting, or being affected by, the problem or the solution from the early stages of the design process. The majority of the methods that are utilized in design practice have until now been user-focused, aiming at understanding the users and designing for the user experience. Stakeholder involvement in the design process is a new topic of study in the design field. Approaches and methods that guide the designers in developing design solutions by considering diverse stake-holder perspectives are limited.
With the purpose of assisting the designers in considering the stakeholder perspectives in the design process, we present the Value Design Method that aims to integrate the user insights, business insights, and stakeholder expectations and roles at the early stages of the design process. We introduce the method alongside the Value Design Canvas. The Value Design Canvas is a visual probe that can be applied in collaborative multi-stakeholder design workshops. We provide advice on how to apply the method and on aspects that should be attended to while organizing multi-stakeholder workshops.

2015 Exploring the complex: Method development by research through design. Gultekin-Atasoy, P. Lu, Y., Bekker, M.M., Brombacher, A.C., Berry J.H. In Proceedings of the 11th European Academy of Design Conference: Value of Design Research. Paris, 22-24 April 2015. Paris Descartes University.

Abstract. The emerging design landscape in the transformation economy is characterized with the prevalence of product-service integrations and the search for solutions to social challenges. In such a context the problems handled by the design practice grow in scale and complexity. Collaboration across disciplines and with various stakeholders are increasingly being valued in the design process.
This trend calls for new methods and tools to support the trans-disciplinary design and requires integrating knowledge from different disciplines which eventually poses unique challenges to the researchers conducting research in a context with multiple interrelated variables.
This paper presents a research through design approach that is used for developing a collaborative design method in a trans-disciplinary research context. The research through design approach is selected since it is a suitable approach for dealing with complex situations in design research. The applied research through design process is presented and discussed with the purpose of demonstrating the potential of such an approach and guiding the researchers in similar research contexts.

2015 The creation of professional empathy during multi-stakeholder Collaboration. Steenbakkers, Jim, Lu, Yuan,  Brinkema, Marloes; Gultekin-Atasoy, Pelin.  In Proceedings of the 11th European Academy of Design Conference: Value of Design Research. Paris, 22-24 April 2015. Paris Descartes University. 

2014 Conflicts as Opportunities for New Insights. Gultekin-Atasoy, P., Hooft van Huysduynen, H., Lu, Y., Bekker, M.M., Brombacher, A. C. & Eggen, J.H. Paper presented at the Proceedings of 19th DMI: Academic Design Management Conference: Design Management in an Era of Disruption, London, 2–4 September 2014. (pp. 1323 – 1341). Design Management Institute.

Abstract. Collaboration is increasingly valued for innovation, however setting up collaboration between different stakeholders is challenging due to the high level of uncertainties at the early stages of the innovation process. In networked innovation, the what (proposition) and the how (development process and business model) need to be designed together. Involvement of potential partners early in the design process is important to gather valuable insights to enrich the value proposition, and reduce uncertainty.
To support the multi-stakeholder collaboration, we are developing a method that combines user insights and business insights in a single design process for multi-stakeholder settings. In this paper, two cases are examined in which we applied our method with the purpose of defining a combined service proposition with a triple-helix innovation model by inviting core stakeholders.
We observed different dynamics in the discussions during the sessions, and more specifically, in the way conflicts emerged and new insights were created. Conflicts were observed to be valuable moments in multistakeholder discussions; they acted as a driver for the conversations that provided new insights to the participants and reduced the uncertainties, as a consequence. Confrontation rather than suppression of conflicts is suggested to reduce uncertainties in the earlier stages of innovation processes.

2014 Evaluating Value Design Workshop at Collaborative Design Sessions. Gultekin-Atasoy, P., Lu, Y., Bekker, M.M., Eggen, J.H., Brombacher, A. C. Paper presented at the Proceedings of NordDesign 2014 Conference, August 27 – 29, 2014, Espoo, Finland. (pp. 335-345). Design Society & Aalto University.

Abstract. Setting up collaboration is getting increasingly important in design practice. It is also valuable to involve the stakeholders early in the design process for gathering deeper insights and arriving at innovative ideas. However, high level of uncertainty in the early stages of the process can be an obstacle to initiate collaboration.
We are developing a method to support the initiation of multi-stakeholder collaboration, which aims to develop a design concept by integrating user insight with business insight in a single design process. We incorporated our assumptions in a workshop format, which is a combination of a tool and a process, named Value Design Workshop. To identify the opportunities for improvement, we evaluated how the participants experienced the workshop format in a multi-stakeholder session. We gathered participant evaluations based on quality in use criteria by using a post-session questionnaire. The paper presents our findings on the requirements of multi-stakeholder sessions and design improvements for our method.
2013 Facilitating design and innovation workshops using the value design canvas. Gultekin-Atasoy, P., Bekker, M. M., Lu, Y., Brombacher, A.C. & Eggen, J.H.  In H. Melkas & J. Buur (Eds.), Proceedings paper : 3rd Participatory Innovation Conference, (pp. 111-118). Lahti, Finland: LUT Scientific and Expertise Publications.
Abstract. Design and innovation workshops are common practices to match diverse stakeholders to initiate collaboration for innovation. Due to the complex and multi-faceted processes in such a collaboration workshop, not only the toolkits but also the facilitation of the process needs to be taken into account. This paper discusses the use of the Value Design Canvas, a paper-based tool that is designed to support multi-stakeholder co-design process in a design and innovation workshop. We evaluated the current version of the tool in a multi-stakeholder design and innovation workshop session with a special focus on the quality of the facilitation process.  The findings are described by relating facilitator activities with implications for tool (re-)design.

2007 Developing an approach for interaction design of digital consumer products. Pelin Gültekin (Atasoy).Paper presented at the Doctoral consortium. Design Inquiries The Nordic Design Research Conference `07. 27-30 May 2007, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract . Digital technology continues to prevail in every part of daily life with an accelerating speed. Accordingly, digital consumer products increasingly integrate multiple and various features, which pose both a problem of complexity and a challenge for developing intuitive interaction alternatives. This paper presents a general framework of a proposed PhD study that mainly attempts to develop an alternative approach to designing digital consumer product interfaces that integrate multiple functions and complex interfaces with digital displays. First stimulants of the problem domain are presented with main arguments. Then possible courses of research are discussed.

2006 Comparisons between user expectations for products in physical and virtual domains. Bahar Sener (Pedgley), Pelin Gültekin and Çigdem Erbug. In Bust, P.D. (ed.), Contemporary Ergonomics 2006, Taylor & Francis, p.149-156.

Abstract . This paper focuses on the expectations that users form when they are confronted with audio products. It presents the results of a comparative study conducted with twenty users to reveal similarities and differences in their expectations for products in physical (i.e. hardware) and virtual (i.e. software) domains. The results are suggested to be valuable on two accounts. First, for the design of products that can mediate between increased technological possibilities and increased user demands. And second, in relation to methodological issues, for the systematic assessment of user expectations for new products.

2006 User Preferences for Products in Physical and Virtual Domains: A Comparative Study of Audio Players. Pelin Gültekin, Bahar Sener (Pedgley) and Çigdem Erbug. In de Waard, D., Brookhuis, K.A. and Tofetti, A. (eds.) Development in Human Factors in Transportation, Design and Evaluation, Shaker Publishing, p.213-223.

Abstract . This paper focuses on the product expectations that users form when they are confronted with audio products. It presents the results of a comparative study conducted with twenty users to reveal the similarities and differences of their expectations from portable audio devices versus audio player applications. Analyses using the Repertory Grid Technique are described, followed by a discussion on how the user expectations change depending on a physical or a virtual product is of concern.

2005 Usability Problems in Digital Home Products: An Interactive TV Case Study. Pelin Gültekin and Çigdem Erbug. HCI International 2005, 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction. July 22 – 27, 2005, Caesar’s Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada USA. MIRA Digital Publishing.

Abstract. One of the most prevailing outcomes of the development of digital technology is its extensive use in consumer products. It is observed that, in contemporary market conditions, rapid development rate of digital technologies are utilized by producers to differentiate products more easily and rapidly. New features that utilize latest technologies are implemented in consumer products as an absolute way of achieving market success and marketed as a mark of high quality and superiority. However, the novel features integrated into the products for an improved user-product interaction, are questionable when looking from the usability perspective. Increased number of product features can create problems during use and can even remain unused as they do not fit to user requirements.
A field study on interactive TV broadcasting was conducted to question if some of the novel features that are integrated into the products in everyday use are excessive, as they are not required or utilized by users. Users’expectations from this kind of service are collected. An overall evaluation of the system usability was made to inquire if the additional/unused features increased system complexity and caused problems in use.

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